July 12th

1984
Walter F. Mondale Names Geraldine A. Ferraro as Running Mate in Presidential Elections. New York Congressperson, Geraldine A. Ferraro, became the first woman to run for office on a major party ticket in the United States.
Geraldine Ferraro
1979
Kiribati, formerly the Gilbert Islands, gained its independence from the United Kingdom.
History of Kiribati
1975
São Tomé and Príncipe gains independence from Portuguese rule. The island nation was discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century. For over 200 years, its economy was run by African slaves who cultivated sugar, coffee, and cocoa. Manuel Pinto da Costa became the first president of the newly independent country.
São Tomé and Príncipe
1967
Race riots break out in Newark, New Jersey, killing 26 people and injuring several others. The violence began when two white policemen arrested a black cab driver.
1967 Newark riots
1962
First performance of the Rolling Stones. The British rock band performed for the first time as a group at the Marquee Club in London.
The Rolling Stones
1960
The first Etch-A-Sketch went on sale.
Etch A Sketch
1957
US Surgeon General Leroy Burney connects smoking with lung cancer.
Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the ...
1943
WWII: Battle of Prokhorovka - Russians defeat German forces in one of the largest ever tank battles.
Battle of Prokhorovka
1920
Moscow Peace Treaty is signed. Also known as the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, the treaty was signed between Lithuania and the Soviet Union. It recognized Lithuanian sovereignty in exchange for its neutrality and for safe passage for Russian troops to Poland.
Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty
1862
Congress authorized the Medal of Honor.
Medal of Honor
1690
Protestant William of Orange defeated Roman Catholic James II at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.
Battle of the Boyne
1679
Britain's King Charles II ratifies Habeas Corpus Act allowing prisoners right to be imprisoned to be examined.
Habeas Corpus Act 1679
1543
England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.
Catherine Parr