Scientists detect evidence of light from the universe's first stars, predicted to have formed 500 million years after the big bang.
Chronology of the universe
Maastricht Treaty comes into force. The Maastricht Treaty that created a common currency, the Euro, for European Union countries came into force
United Airlines Flight 629 blows up over Colorado. A bomb hidden in checked luggage of United Airlines Flight 629 exploded over Longmont, Colorado killing all 44 people on board.
United Airlines Flight 629
First large hydrogen bomb tested by the U.S. The bomb, codenamed Mike, was part of Operation Ivy and was tested in the Eniwetok atoll in the Marshall Islands.
Benito Mussolini described the new alliance between Nazi Germany and Italy as an "axis" running between Berlin and Rome.
Fascism and ideology
Paul Miliukov delivers in the Russian State Duma the famous 'stupidity or treason' speech, precipitating the downfall of the Boris Stürmer government.
First bomb dropped from an aircraft. Prior to this, bombs were dropped using unmanned balloons. The first bomb launched from an aircraft was used by the Italians in the Italo-Turkish War.
Nicholas II became Tsar of Russia. The last Tsar of Russia took over the reign of the empire after his father, Alexander III died. Nicholas was forced to abdicate in 1917 and was executed a year later along with his family.
Nicholas II of Russia
The U.S. Weather Bureau made its first meteorological observations.
National Weather Service
Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France, in the Napoleonic Wars.
War of the Sixth Coalition
The Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the American colonies, went into effect.
Stamp Act 1765
Earthquake, fires, and tsunami leveled Lisbon and claimed 70,000 lives.
1755 Lisbon earthquake
Michelangelo's paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel were shown to the public for the first time.
Sistine Chapel ceiling