October 19th

202 BC
Battle of Zama: Hannibal Barca and the Carthaginian army are defeated by Roman legions under Scipio Africanus, ending 2nd Punic War.
Battle of Zama
US scientists from University of California find evidence life on earth may have begun 4.1 billion years ago, 300 million earlier than previously thought.
RNA world
Trial of Saddam Hussein Begins. The Iraqi Special Tribunal started the trial of deposed President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, and 7 other defendants for crimes against humanity. Hussein, who was the fifth President of Iraq was found guilty and was executed by hanging a year later on December 30, 2006.
History of Iraq (2003–11)
The stock market crashed on what came to be known as 'Black Monday.' Stocks dropped a record 508 points, or 22.6%, topping the drops on October 28 and 29 in 1929 that ushered in the Great Depression.
Black Monday (1987)
The Senate passed a bill (78–22) making Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, birthday a public holiday.
Coretta Scott King
The United States imposes a partial embargo on goods exported to Cuba.
United States embargo against Cuba
Cho Oyu Scaled for the First Time in Recorded History. The 6th highest mountain peak in the world, Cho Oyu is part of the Himalayan mountain range and lies on the Nepal-China border. It was scaled by Nepalese Pasang Dawa Lama and Austrians Joseph Jöchler and Herbert Tichy.
Cho Oyu
Battle of Chamdo (Qamdo) Ends. Also known as the Liberation of Tibet in China, the war between China and Tibet began on October 6, when Chinese military forces under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping entered the country from Sichuan. At the end of the battle, the Chinese had taken over the border city of Chamdo. The battle was the starting point for negotiations between the two countries over the status of Tibet.
Battle of Chamdo
Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
Russian Politburo throws out Leon Trotsky and his followers.
Leon Trotsky
First Battle of Ypres. Part of the Battle of Flanders during the First World War, the First Battle of Ypres was fought in the Belgian city of Ypres. It was fought between German forces on one side and the Belgian, French and British troops on the other. Fighting continued until November 22, when harsh weather forced the two sides to take a break from the hostilities.
First Battle of Ypres
French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte began their retreat from Moscow.
French invasion of Russia
British General Cornwallis surrendered to General George Washington at Yorktown, Va., bringing an end to the last major battle of the American Revolution.
Siege of Yorktown
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